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Treatment Of Sports Injuries With Hyperbar Oxygen

Medical information reviewed by: ANDREI BOGDAN, MD, Orthopedics-traumatology doctor
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Discover the hyperbaric medicine center opened in our clinic. Centrokinetic has the top-performing hyperbaric chamber in Bucharest, with multiple medical and anti-aging uses. The Baroks chamber has 5 seats, and operates at a constant pressure of 2.5 atmospheres, being fully automated and having protocols for each condition, and can be used individually for each patient. 

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy - benefits

Patients who use the clinic's hyperbaric therapy services benefit from:

  • The only medically accredited hyperbaric therapy chamber in Bucharest, which operates at 2.5 atmospheres (those for aesthetic use go to 1 atmosphere and have no medical benefits).
  • A safe medical procedure, without irradiation, without pain, without other side effects. 
  • The specialized medical team consists of recovery doctors, orthopedists, rheumatologists, neurologists, and neurosurgeons, meaning a multidisciplinary team specialized in all diseases that can be treated with hyperbaric therapy. 
  • Premium conditions at a fair price. Our clinic is recognized for the conditions offered and for the care of each patient. But we do not need to pay exorbitant prices to have access to quality medical services. At Centrokinetic you can find an affordable and fair price. But note that we do not have a contract with the National Health Insurance House (we do not offer state reimbursed services)

Centrokinetic is keeping contact with prestigious clinics and universities in Belgium, the Netherlands, France, and Greece to constantly update treatments to provide patients with the best medical solutions.

The effects of hyperbaric oxygen on sports injuries

In the last decade, competitive sports have acquired a whole new meaning, their intensity has increased with the incidence of injuries in athletes. Therefore, it is necessary to develop better and faster treatments that allow the athlete to return to competition faster than in the normal course of recovery, with a low risk of recurrence. Hyperbaric therapies are methods used to treat disease or injury using pressures higher than the local atmospheric pressure inside a hyperbaric chamber. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy comprises the administration of pure oxygen (100%) at pressures higher than atmospheric pressure, i.e more than one absolute atmosphere, for therapeutic reasons.

Biochemical, cellular, and physiological effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy

The level of O2 consumption by which a tissue, in the local blood flow and the relative distance from the area considered closest to the arteriole and capillary, determines the O2 pressure in this tissue. Indeed, O2 consumption causes a rapid decrease in the partial pressure of O2 between the arterioles and venules. This emphasizes that in tissues there is a distribution of oxygen pressures according to a gradient. It also occurs at the cellular level, such as in the mitochondria, the final site of oxygen consumption, where O2 concentrations range from 1.5 to 3 μM. Before reaching places of use in the cell such as the mitochondria and endoplasmic retina, oxygen moves down a pressure gradient from inspired gas to alveolar gas, arterial blood, capillary bed, and over interstitial and intercellular fluid. Under normobaric conditions, the oxygen pressure gradient, known as the "oxygen cascade" starts at 159 mmHg and reaches 3.8 - 22.5 mmHg depending on the target tissue. Blood pressure is about 90 mmHg and oxygen pressure in the tissues is about 55 mmHg. These values ​​are much higher by breathing pure oxygen at a higher pressure than atmospheric.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is limited by the toxic effects of oxygen at a maximum pressure of 3 bar. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the arterial blood, the water vapor pressure, and the respiratory coefficient do not vary significantly between 1 and 3 bar. Therefore, for example, inhaling 100% oxygen at 2 ATA provides an alveolar oxygen pressure of 1423 mmHg and consequently, alveolar oxygen passes through the alveolar-capillary space and diffuses into the pulmonary venous capillary according to Fick's diffusion laws.

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Hyperoxia and hyperoxygenation

Oxygen is transported by the blood in two ways: chemically, bound to hemoglobin and physically, dissolved in plasma. During normal breathing in the environment in which we live, hemoglobin has an oxygen saturation of 97%, representing a total oxygen content of about 19.5 ml O2 / 100 ml of blood (or 19.5 vol%), because 1 g of 100% saturated hemoglobin carries 1.34 ml of oxygen. Under these conditions the amount of dissolved oxygen in the plasma is 0.32 vol%, giving a total of 19.82 vol% oxygen. When we provide 85% oxygen through a Hudson mask, the oxygen content can reach values ​​of up to 22.2 vol%. The main effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is hyperoxia. 

During this therapy, oxygen is physically dissolved in the blood plasma. At an ambient pressure of 2.8 ATA and 100% oxygen respiration, the alveolar oxygen pressure is approximately 2180mmHg, the arterial oxygen pressure is at least 1800mmHg, and the tissue oxygen pressure is at least 500 mmHg. The oxygen content of the blood is approximately ([1.34 x Hbg x SaO2] + [0.0031 x PaO2]), where Hbg is the serum hemoglobin concentration and SaO2 is the saturation of arterial oxygen. At an arterial oxygen pressure of 1800mmHg, the dissolved oxygen fraction in plasma is about 6 vol%, which means that 6 ml of oxygen will be physically dissolved in 100 ml of plasma, reaching the total volume of oxygen in the circulating blood volume. equal to 26.9 vol%, equivalent to basic metabolic oxygen needs, and oxygen pressure in the arteries can reach 2000mmHg. 

With normal lung function and adequate tissue perfusion, a partial blood pressure of more than 1000mmHg can be achieved. When we breathe pure oxygen at 2 ATA, the oxygen content in the plasma is 10 times higher than when we breathe the sea air. Under normal conditions, the oxygen pressure is 95 mmHg; under the conditions of a hyperbaric chamber, the oxygen pressure can reach values ​​higher than 2000mmHg. Consequently, during hyperbaric oxygen therapy, hemoglobin is also completely saturated in the venous blood, and the result is increased pressure of oxygen throughout the vascular bed. 

After leaving the hyperbaric oxygen environment, arterial oxygen pressure normalizes within minutes, but tissue oxygen pressure can remain high for a variable period, from a few minutes to a few hours, depending on the tissue perfusion. The physiological effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy include short-term effects such as vasoconstriction and increased oxygen delivery, reduced edema, activation of phagocytosis, and also an anti-inflammatory effect (improved leukocyte function). The long-term effects are neovascularization (angiogenesis in hypoxic soft tissues), osteoneogenesis, and stimulation of collagen production by fibroblasts. This is beneficial for wound healing and recovery after irradiation.

Physiological and therapeutic effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy

In normal tissues, the main action of oxygen is to cause general vasoconstriction (especially in the kidneys, skeletal muscle, brain, and skin), which causes a "Robin Hood effect" by reducing blood flow and increased oxygenation in the tissue. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy provides a significant increase in tissue oxygen availability, as selective hyperoxic and not hypoxic vasoconstriction, which occurs predominantly in healthy tissues, with reduced blood volume and redistribution edema in hypoxic peripheral tissue, which may increase anti-ischemic and anti-hypoxic effects in the extremities due to this physiological mechanism. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy reduces edema, partly due to vasoconstriction, partly due to improved homeostasis mechanisms.

The presence of oxygen has the advantage that it not only promotes a less hospitable environment for anaerobic bacteria but also accelerates the wound healing process.
The healing of sports injuries consists of natural recovery and follows a fairly constant pattern, regardless of the root cause. Three phases have been identified in this process: the inflammatory phase, the proliferative phase, and the remodeling phase. Oxygen plays an important role in each of these phases.
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In the inflammatory phase, hypoxia-induced factor-1, which promotes, for example, the glycolytic system, vascularity, and angiogenesis, is important. However, if the oxygen supply could be controlled without increasing blood flow, the permeability of the blood vessel could be controlled to reduce inflammation and consequently intense pain.

In the proliferative phase, in musculoskeletal tissues (except cartilage), oxygen supply to the injured area is gradually increased and is essential for the synthesis of extracellular matrix components such as fibronectin and proteoglycan.

In the remodeling phase, the tissue is slowly replaced for several hours, using the oxygen supply provided by the vessel. If the lesion is small, the tissue is reconstructed almost perfectly, but if its size is larger, the tissue can be replaced by a scar, consisting mainly of collagen.


Centrokinetic is the place where you will find clear answers and solutions for your motricity problems. The clinic is dedicated to osteoarticular diseases and is divided into the following specialized departments:

  • Orthopedics , a department composed of an extremely experienced team of orthopedic doctors, led by Dr. Andrei Ioan Bogdan, primary care physician in orthopedics-traumatology, with surgical activity at Medlife Orthopedic Hospital, specialized in sports traumatology and ankle and foot surgery. .
  • Pediatric orthopedics , where children's sports conditions are treated (ligament and meniscus injuries), spinal deformities (scoliosis, kyphosis, hyperlordosis) and those of the feet (hallux valgus, hallux rigidus, equine larynx, flat valgus, hollow foot).
  • Neurology , which has an ultra-performing department, where consultations, electroencephalograms (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) are performed. 
  • Medical recovery  for adults and  children , department specialized in the recovery of performance athletes, in spinal disorders, in the recovery of children with neurological and traumatic diseases. Our experience is extremely rich, treating over 5000 performance athletes.
  • Medical imaging , the clinic being equipped with ultrasound and MRI, high-performance devices dedicated to musculoskeletal disorders, and complemented by an experienced team of radiologists: Dr. Sorin Ghiea and Dr. Cosmin Pantu, specialized in musculoskeletal imaging.

Find the latest news by following the Facebook and YouTube accounts of the Centrokinetic clinic.  

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Cystoid or cystic intestinal pneumatosis (intestinal emphysema) is a symptom that can occur in many gastrointestinal diseases. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy can be a successful treatment of cystoid intestinal pneumatosis and granulomatosis with polyangiitis.


Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in cell damage caused by radiation in gynecological cancers

Gynecological cancers treated with a combination of external beam radiation and brachytherapy, especially cervical and vaginal cancers, can result in the apex of the vagina receiving a high dose of radiation. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has positive effects on the radiated tissues, especially the head, neck, anus, and rectum.


Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in post-radiotherapy CNS injury

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Hyperbaric oxygenation vs normobaric oxygenation in CO poisoning

Prolonged CO exposure is responsible for more than half of fatal poisonings and is also one of the leading causes of poisoning in Western countries. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of therapy with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) versus normobaric oxygen (NBO) in the setting of carbon monoxide poisoning (COP).


Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in diabetic foot

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may be effective for Wagner's grade 3 and 4 diabetic foot ulcers and need to study the real problems with patients seeking treatment and demonstrates the need to study the real problems with patients seeking treatment. The results show that it is important to follow the treatment in order for the HBOT to be efficient.


The role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in sports medicine

Hyperbaric oxygen is used in sports medicine to reduce hypoxia and edema and is also effective in treating stroke injuries and acute traumatic peripheral ischemia. When used clinically, hyperbaric oxygen should be considered as an adjuvant therapy used as early as possible after the diagnosis of the lesions.


Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in muscle injuries

Muscle stretches are the most common muscle injuries suffered during performance sports. Rapid recovery from muscle injury is crucial for elite athletes who regularly are exposed to training and increased competition. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a safe and effective method, being a non-invasive treatment


Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in sports injuries

Hyperbaric therapies are methods used to treat disease or injury using pressures higher than the local atmospheric pressure inside a hyperbaric chamber. The long-term effects are neovascularization (angiogenesis in hypoxic soft tissues), osteoneogenesis, and stimulation of collagen production by fibroblasts. This is beneficial for wound healing and recovery after irradiation.


Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in proctitis generated by radiation

Proctitis is the inflammation of the rectal mucosa causing pain, discharge, and other unusual symptoms. Pain can occur during bowel movements, it can be acute or chronic. Symptoms may vary, but the most common is tenesmus (the feeling of needing to go to the toilet), a sensation that persists even after using the toilet. This treatment should be offered to patients who fail to recover with conventional treatments for radiation-induced proctitis.


Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in refractory osteomyelitis

Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone or marrow caused by bacteria or mycobacteria. Hyperbaric oxygen treatments can be considered an American Heart Association (AHA) Class II recommendation for the treatment of chronic, refractory osteomyelitis


Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in tinnitus

Hyperbaric oxygenation allows a controlled increase in oxygen pressure in the blood. This technique can be used in cases of tinnitus and sudden deafness, when certain changes in the inner ear and brain generate a lack of oxygen and, therefore, a limited intake of energy.


Hyperbaric oxygen therapy of ischemia and reperfusion injury

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been found to ameliorate the damaging effects of reperfusion by early modulation of inflammation, maintenance of metabolic function in downstream tissues, and reintroduction of oxidation scavengers.


Hyperbaric therapy in the treatment of second degree burns

HBOT has a beneficial effect on burn wound healing by reducing edema and ensuring there is adequate oxygen in microcirculation. It may speed up epithelialization and suppress unnecessary inflammation that could negatively affect normal wound healing. With further research, HBOT may become an adjuvant therapy to surgery.


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Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the management of patients with malignant otitis externa

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Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in acute myocardial infarction

If left untreated, MI will lead to the progressive loss of viable cardiomyocytes, impaired heart function, and congestive heart failure. Oxygen cycling therapy serves as a very attractive option for the treatment of myocardial infarction, because it offers some of the greatest benefits while reducing treatment time and inconvenience to the subject.


Hyperbaric oxygen in ischemic ulcers

The present study has demonstrated that adjunct HBOT enhances the reduction of ulcer area and depth at 4 weeks in T2DM patients with ischaemic DFUs. HBOT is known to ensure hyperoxygenation of ischaemic tissue and restoration from hypoxia. Discover the hyperbaric medicine center open in our clinic. Centrokinetic has the top-performing hyperbaric chamber in Bucharest.


Hyperbaric therapy in femoral condylar osteonecrosis

Osteonecrosis of the knee (ONK) is a form of aseptic necrosis resulting from ischemia to subchondral bone tissue. Typically, treatment is invasive. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) may provide a noninvasive alternative by improving oxygenation and reperfusion of ischemic areas. This study evaluates the efficacy of HBOT in a series of ONK patients.


Hyperbaric therapy in femoral head necrosis

Femoral head necrosis (FHN), also called avascular necrosis, or femoral head osteonecrosis is a common multifactorial condition that affects patients of any age and can lead to substantial clinical morbidity. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) is one of the proposed treatments. Indeed, tissue oxygen promotes angiogenesis that reduces edema. Read about the effectiveness of this treatment.


Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in central retinal artery occlusion

Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is a devastating and common eye condition. It presents a sudden, unilateral, and painless loss of vision. Even when treated promptly, an acute obstruction of the central retinal artery usually leads to severe and permanent loss of vision.


Hyperbaric therapy in irradiated maxillofacial dental implant

There are numerous studies reported for the effectiveness of HBO in the treatment of osteoradionecrosis of various bone tissues. In addition to its usefulness in treating osteoradionecrosis, this therapy can prevent it. It also combats the negative effect of irradiation, stimulates osseointegration, and improves the survival rate of the implant.


Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in hear loss

The auditory function in the inner ear is maintained by the cochlea, which is known to have a high oxygen demand. Hyperbaric oxygen can increase the tension of oxygen in the perilymph and restore hearing in a significant number of patients with sudden hearing loss. Patients can be treated in a single-seater hyperbaric chamber or in a multiplace chamber.


Hyperbaric therapy in traumatic ischemia

Limb trauma, which leads to direct tissue damage, plus local hypoxic disorders caused by the resulting edema, causes acute peripheral ischemia. Surgical treatment and hyperbaric oxygen are not concurrent treatment modalities but are best used to complement each other in order to provide the best outcome for the patient.


Hyperbaric therapy in venous embolism

Small gas embolisms, as in this case, present serious risks, especially the complication of cerebral air embolism. To prevent neurological complications, it is necessary to urgently remove the air bubble. HBOT reduces the volume of the bubble, helps eliminate nitrogen, and improves the oxygenation of potentially hypoxic tissue. See the results of hyperbaric therapy in venous embolism.


Hyperbaric therapy in osteoradionecrosis

Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is a common consequence of radiation provided to cancer patients. Currently, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has a major role in improving wound healing in patients with ORN.


Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in soft tissue radionecrosis

Discover the hyperbaric medicine center open in our clinic. Centrokinetic has the top-performing hyperbaric chamber in Bucharest, with multiple medical and anti-aging uses. The Baroks chamber has 5 seats, and operates at a constant pressure of 2.5 atmospheres, being fully automated and having protocols for each condition, and can be used individually for each patient.



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